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When the Journey’s Over – The Making of Night Train to Munich

‘I am speaking to you from the cabinet room at 10 Downing Street. This morning the British Ambassador in Berlin handed the German government a final note, stating that unless we heard from them by 11 o’clock that they were prepared at once to withdraw their troops from Poland, a state of war would exist between us.’ And with those words, spoken by Prime Minister Neville Chamberlain on 3 September 1939, Britain had officially declared war on Germany. In violation of the Munich Agreement, Adolf Hitler had ordered Nazi troops to invade the remaining corners of Czechoslovakia in March of that year, prompting Britain to form an alliance with Poland. But when the German army had marked into Poland on the first day of September, Chamberlain had issued Hitler with an ultimatum; to withdraw or suffer the consequences. With Hitler refusing to comply, Britain and its allies made a formal declaration of war two days later, consequently marking the start of what would become known as the Second World War. For the next six years, over one hundred million soldiers and civilians from various nations perished as the Allied and Axis forces fought across the globe, until enemy troops finally surrendered on 2 September 1945.

With the advent of war in late 1939, the British film industry was thrown into disarray, with most of the country’s major studios commandeered by the government for the purpose of being used by the military. Due to the impending fear of air raids from Germany bombers, cinemas and theatres across London and major cities across the land were closed, forcing many actors out of work. But this state of blackout would not last long, as the government soon expressed interest in producing propaganda pictures, as well as light-hearted capers that could serve as escapism for those citizens remaining at home, eagerly awaiting news of their loved ones fighting overseas. One of the first British movies to tackle the war head-on, particularly the looming threat of the Nazis, was Night Train to Munich, the latest feature from acclaimed filmmaker Carol Reed, who at that time was revelling in the recent success of his breakthrough Bank Holiday. Portraying the Nazis and their concentration camps in a manner not previously seen in British cinema, Night Train to Munich was for many their introduction to the horrors of the coming war.

Many critics and fans consider Night Train to Munich to be a sequel or spinoff of sorts to Alfred Hichcock’s 1938 thriller The Lady Vanishes, in which a beautiful young woman onboard a train is convinced that an elderly woman she had been speaking to has disappeared and suspects foul play. In the role of Iris, the soon-to-be-married protagonist, was twenty-one-year-old Margaret Lockwood, who had signed with Gainsborough Pictures early in her career and in just a few short years had become one of the country’s most adored leading ladies. According to Lockwood’s autobiography Lucky Star, she had first crossed paths with Carol Reed in the late 1920s when they both studied at the Italia Conti theatre school in London, when Reed harboured dreams of becoming an actor.

The two had met again several years later when Lockwood had landed one of the lead roles in Basil Dean’s acclaimed drama Lorna Doone, in which Reed had been hired as an assistant director. Lockwood was not the only link between The Lady Vanishes and Night Train to Munich; there was also the threat of war, a charming hero to assist in her mission and the comic relief from co-stars Basil Radford and Naunton Wayne, who took the role of cricket-loving English gentlemen Charters and Caldicott. Hitchcock’s penultimate picture before relocating to the United States, The Lady Vanishes had enjoyed considerable critical success due to the strong performances of Lockwood and her leading man Michael Redgrave, as well as the witty and fast-paced screenplay by Sidney Gilliat and Frank Launder. While Variety considered Redgrave ‘a trifle too flippant,’ the majority of reviews hailed Hitchcock’s handling of the material, while also praising Lockwood’s career-defining performance. Edward Black, the managing director of Gainsborough, had an eye for talent and would often sign his talent for multiple-picture deals, with both Lockwood and Redgrave among the many young stars on his roster.

With war now seemingly imminent as the Nazi army made its way across Europe, the decision was made to adapt a story by Australian writer Gordon Wellesley entitled Report on a Fugitive, recruiting Gilliat and Launder to develop the screenplay under the name Gestapo. Reed, who by the end of the decade had proven himself to be a resourceful and profitable filmmaker, was offered the project to direct. Lockwood had first worked professionally with Reed in 1935 on an adaptation of Frederick Marryat’s tale Midshipman Easy, a project that had been passed over to the young director from his mentor, Basil Dean.

Over the course of their career, Reed and Lockwood would work together on a total of seven movies, their final being 1940’s The Girl in the News. Michael Redgrave, one of Gainsborough’s most popular stars, was offered the role of Dickie Randall, an intelligence officer who assists Lockwood’s character in her venture, but due to prior commitments he was unable to accept, and so Reed approached Rex Harrison, then performing in a production of Noël Coward’s Design for Living.

In the biography Fatal Charm: The Life of Rex Harrison, author Alexander Walker claimed that years earlier, while Reed was still pursuing an acting career, Harrison had stolen his girlfriend, although any animosity over the incident seemed to do little to sour their friendship. Eight years Lockwood’s senior, Harrison would prove to be the ideal co-star for the actress, displaying a wit and charisma that gave his character both credibility and appeal. Having already taken Austria and Sudetenland, Hitler’s next command is the occupation of Prague.

At the instructions of the Minister of the Interior, the main concern is the safety of Axel Bomasch, one of the government’s top scientists, and his GK armoured plating, which must not fall into enemy hands. German planes soon appear above the city and Bomasch’s factory notify his daughter, Anna, with instructions to leave the country immediately. Before she is able to run she is arrested by Nazi officers, while her father manages to escape by air. She is taken with other prisoners to a concentration camp, where she witnesses one of the guards beating Karl Marsen, another new arrival who refuses to bow down to his captors.

Later in the yard she is approached by Karl, who thanks Anna for her kindness and asks why she was arrested. When she reveals that her father escaped to England he expresses a longing to visit the country, and when she vows to find a way to escape he seems eager to assist. But their plot is interrupted by the guard, who orders them to remain silent. Karl reveals that the guard in question was once a friend but had been forcibly recruited by the Nazis, yet could still be an ally. With Karl’s help, Anna manages to escape from the camp and make their way to England by boat, docking under the guise of a fishing boat.

Arriving in London they pay a visit to Dr. Fredericks, an ophthalmic surgeon and associate of Karl’s, whom he meets in private to discuss the true nature of his mission. Karl reveals himself to be a Gastapo officer who was allowed to escape the camp with Anna, in order to lead her and thus the Gastapo to the whereabouts of her father. The doctor informs Karl to advise Anna that she place an ad in the classified section of the London Times to notify her father, but to avoid being too hasty so his identity is not discovered.

She receives a phone call that night from a stranger who tells her to collect a train ticket that has been left at the post office, and when she arrives at her destination ask for Gus Bennett. Unknown to Anna, Karl has overheard her conversation but reveals nothing, while she follows her instructions and meets her contact, Gus, an overly confident stage performer. Talking after his performance, Anna tells her story about escaping the camp and searching for her father, at which point he signals over to her father as he arrives on a boat. With Anna having been followed to the town of Brightbourne, the Nazis realise that he has been visiting a nearby Naval base, continuing with his secret experiments.

Night Train to Munich

Night Train to Munich

Gus Bennett, an alias for Dickie Randall, shows suspicion over the true identity of her friend, Karl, and hints that her escape may have been assisted by the enemy. Two Naval officers appear their hideout, claiming to offer an invitation for Bomasch and his daughter, but when Dickie asks too many questions they knock him unconscious. While travelling through the night on a boat, Anna and her father realise that the Naval officers have abducted them and they are taken onboard a German U-boat.

Meeting with his superiors, Dickie is informed that Karl is really a Gestapo officer but when he realises that it will take forty-eight hours for the Nazis to arrive at their high command with Bomasch, Dickie requests permission to launch a rescue mission, even as the German army threaten to invade Poland, thus bringing Europe to the brink of war. Unable to authorise such a mission, his boss suggests that he take a week’s sick leave, thus giving his unofficial approval for Dickie to pursue Bomasch to Germany.

‘I really did enjoy the film,’ said Harrison years later regarding his experience of making Gestapo, the movie that would later become Night Train to Munich shortly before its release. ‘By this time I was growing easy with the camera and Carol was already a chum.’ Such was Harrison’s professionalism that during one particularly difficult scene, which involved an appearance from C.V. France, a veteran actor now in his early seventies, who a few years earlier had portrayed the Ghost of Christmas Future in an adaptation of Charles Dickens’ festive tale Scrooge and appeared in Hitchcock’s 1931 thriller The Skin Game.

Despite only having a few lines, France was unable to recite his dialogue without repeatedly messing up each take, causing much embarrassment. Realising that France had become self-conscious, Reed took Harrison aside and asked if he would make a few mistakes of his own in order to relax his older co-star. More than happy to oblige, Harrison did as requested and, after a few ruined takes, the scene was finally completed. After obtaining the uniform of a German officer, Dickie arrives at the high command and is introduced to Commander Kampenfeldt as Major Ulrich Herzog of the Corps of Engineers, with forged papers authorising his presence. Arranging a meeting with Captain Prada, Dickie expresses his concern that the Czechs have superior steel to the German army and thus they need to apprehend Bomasch, but Prada informs him that the scientist has been arrested and is being interrogated in the building. Meanwhile, Bomasch and Anna are being questioned by Karl, who insists that if they co-operate in their ambition they will receive benefits.

Admiral Hassinger arrives at the office with Dickie who, still pretending to be a Nazi, confronts Bomasch and Anna while Hassinger informs the officers that Herzog had met the scientist while on a mission in Prague four years earlier. With Bomasch and Anna escorted out of the room, Dickie negotiates with the officers by hinting that he has a romantic history with Anna that could help influence the opinion of her father. Despite Karl’s protest, Hassinger agrees for Bomasch and Anna to be placed in Dickie’s care for the evening where, in the privacy of a hotel room, he is able to explain his escape plan to her.

Harrison enjoyed the dual role of Dickie Randall and Major Herzog, allowing himself to dress up and play both a cocky spy and a Nazi officer. According to co-writer Sidney Gilliat, Harrison enjoyed wearing the German uniform, as not only did it allow him to look smart on-screen but also gave the actor a chance to expand on his role. Lockwood, in a lead role similar to that of The Lady Vanishes, also looked back fondly on the part of Anna, commenting in her memoirs that ‘I had a part after my own heart again, the ‘nice’ heroine.’ But while The Lady Vanishes had two principal locations – the hotel featured during the first few minutes and the train where the majority of the action takes place – Night Train to Munich would require the characters to travel from Prague to London and then Germany. Despite moving from one country to another, principal photography took place at the Gaumont British Studios in Shepherd’s Bush, London during December 1939 and January 1940.

Providing a suave turn as Karl, the Gestapo spy posing as escaped prisoner, was Paul Henreid, who had come fresh from another Nazi role in An Englishman’s Home, in which he played a spy who infiltrates an English family with the intention of creating a signal for Luftwaffe bombers to hone in on. Having relocated from Austria to Britain in the mid-1930s, Henreid’s accent and blonde hair would threaten to typecast the actor while war continued to rage across Europe. As he explained in his autobiography Ladies Man, ‘Hitler had made such a fuss about the Aryan race that anyone who was slim and tall and blond, with Germanic features, fit the stereotype of a Nazi. I felt that I owed my appearance, as well as my name Hernreid, to Swedish ancestors on my father’s side, but I fit the image in the producer’s mind, so the suave stage lover became the suave Nazi villain.’ Two years after the release of Night Train to Munich, Henreid appeared alongside Humphrey Bogart and Ingrid Bergman in the wartime love story Casablanca.

Receiving a phone call in the middle of the night, Dickie is informed that Bomasch is to be transported on the first train to Munich, under orders of the Führer himself. Dickie realises that they must escape from the hotel, but as they are about to leave they are greeted by Karl, who says that he is under orders to transport Bomasch to Munich on the train that is due to leave in less than an hour. Dickie insists that he accompany the prisoners, much to the annoyance of Karl. At the station, the carriages of a train are commandeered by Nazi officers, but two English tourists, Charters and Caldicott, remain onboard oblivious to the danger.

When confronted by German soldiers, the two refuse to leave the train due to having purchased first class tickets but are eventually escorted away by the military. Soon afterwards, Dickie and his two prisoners arrive and board the train, but Caldicott recognises Dickie, whom he had known from his student days. While en route they hear the news that Britain has declared war on Germany and that the train is required to transport the troops, forcing passengers to disembark. During the short delay at a station, Karl is notified by head office that there is no one enlisted in the Nazi Army called Major Herzog and that Dickie is really a spy. While trying to find an a phone, Charters accidentally overhears a conversation between Karl and his superiors, in which they reveal their plan to arrest Dickie. Unaware that his cover has been blown, Dickie continues with his ruse, while Charters and Caldicott debate on whether Dickie is a traitor or a spy and how they could contact him.

They manage to sneak a note onto a dinner tray which Anna discovers, instructing Dickie to meet them in the lavatory where they agree to help Anna and her father escape. Karl reveals that he is aware of the truth and holds Dickie, Charters and Caldicott and the two prisoners hostage but Charters and Caldicott, now disguised as Nazi soldiers, overpower him before the train reaches its destination. Charters, Caldicott and Dickie, still dressed as Nazis, lead Bomasch and Anna from the train, but officers watch as the passengers leave the platform.

Climbing into a car and making their getaway, the group speed away from the station as officers search the train and find Karl and the real Nazi soldiers tied up in one of the compartments. They finally arrive at the border between Germany and Switzerland, which has remained neurtral, and request passage across to the other side via a cable car. Dickie orders the other into the car and then starts the car as the Nazis arrive. As the car pulls away, Dickie locks up the control cabin and holds the fort until the cable car has reached the other side. Once the car returns, Dickie climbs aboard and continues to fire as he crosses the mountain, but Karl reaches the controls and forces it to reverse. Unwilling to return to his enemies, he climbs out of the cable car and jumps onto another crossing the other way, finally reaching the Swiss side and freedom. Karl watches on, defeated, as Dickie is greeted by his friends.

Margaret Lockwood

Margaret Lockwood

One of the movie’s key selling points, other than the presence of Lockwood, were Charters and Caldicott, who had been introduced as supporting characters in The Lady Vanishes and had been instant hits with cinema-goers. Once again taking a back seat until the end, Basil Radford and Naunton Wayne add a touch of humour as the English gentlemen who seem unaware of the dangers around them, but then prove competent allies when they discover the truth. Radford and Wayne would play the duo twice again, taking lead roles the following year in the caper Crook’s Tour and then once again as support in 1943’s Millions Like Us.

Night Train to Munich was released in the United Kingdom on 24 June 1940 and was met with modest reviews, although too many comparisons were made with The Lady Vanishes and the presence of Charters and Caldicott. Four months later, on 18 October, the movie made its American debut under the shortened title Night Train to a more positive reception, in which it was described as being ‘told without a single letdown.’ While Night Train to Munich would mark the penultimate collaboration between Lockwood and Reed, the latter would work with Harrison once again twenty-five years later on the Charlton Heston vehicle The Agony and the Ecstasy.

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